By Third Pole
Tonle Sap,, March 5, 2018
The Third Pole (TTP): Why did you decide to make this journey?
Gareth Bright (GB): It really started as a boyish adventure. We were living in Cambodia covering the 2013 elections and wanted a break from hard and fast news. We bought a fishing boat in a floating village in Tonle Sap lake and with the help of Cham ethnic Muslim community learnt to [use it] …The intention was to use the boat whenever we had spare time to travel up the river. Then we did a blog post and an NGO from Singapore got in touch and [asked if we would] travel all the way up the river in the boat. This was impossible, but we managed to raise money from other sources and spent 18 months travelling to the source, using different forms of local transport – river boats, motor bikes – stopping and coming back to Phnom Penh. The river became our home, our office, our life.”
TTP: Were you surprised by what you discovered?
GB: Naively, we thought we’d find something beautiful remaining, but really we found disaster after disaster. Every community we went to there was another problem. The whole thing was in a mess and we saw very little comforting all the way from the delta to Yunnan, China (where the river is known as the Lancang). People have existed the same way for thousands of years, then this all changed very quickly and they have had no guidance on what to do. Population growth, industry, and no one is prepared for what to do –they live in continual confusion.”
“People are losing their culture. For example, in Laos we stayed in a village 60 kilometres south of Luang Prabang. People lived there for 400 years in the same way and they were in relocation camps for the construction of the Nam Kong dam. Prior to this they’d never needed money or bought anything. They thought that life would be awesome, but now they need money. They get it from Sinohydro and they work on the dam, but they can’t hold cultural events anymore. They have given up their livestock and pigs are needed for ceremonies. They can’t access the forest anymore for festivals because it’s too far away from their home. They make money, have TV, internet…but they’re losing their culture. It’s sad, alcohol has become a problem, so has domestic violence.”
It wasn’t until we got to Tibet that we found people who were so connected with their environment. Monks and people there have an incredible attitude to their environment.
We found monasteries and religious communities in Zado [near the source of the Mekong on the Tibetan plateau]. One monk showed us a seal from the 5th Dalai Lama [dating back from the 17th century mandating that the monk’s family look after the source of the Mekong river.]
The monk had collected water samples from the river over the past 40 years and kept them in a shed so scientists could analyse them and look at what’s happening to the river. They are seeing less water from springs and have noticed an increase and decrease in water. They have seen sharp edges of glaciers become more rounded over the past 10 years.
TTP: Did people along the river make links between what was happening to them and to changes elsewhere?
We met one old nomad in Tibet who had dedicated his life to cleaning rivers. In Tibet this was the only time people we met seemed concerned about the impact of what they did on the river downstream.
In Cambodia, people who had to be resettled didn’t like dams but they weren’t thinking about fish migration or impact on Tonle Sap lake. In Vietnam they were angry with the Chinese and knew about the dams – they had seen the drop in the water levels in the delta. In one village, UXOs (unexploded ordinances) that had been underwater since the war – napalm containers – emerged as the river level fell, oxidised and exploded, burning entire fields. I heard of 6-7 incidents like this. The pollution has affected fish stocks, there is [agricultural] run-off in Cambodia and plastic in the river. People are angry with the Chinese, yet they still put shit on their own river.
TTP: Are there any communities in different countries working together to save the river?
At Sesan II on the border of Laos the [Cambodian] community is battling the dam but has no communication over the border. It’s a transboundary river, but every country is in the some kind of political turmoil. There is only one place in the golden triangle where Thai and Laos ethnic Dai people are working together. But no information is shared up and down the river. Unless people are immediately affected they have no idea about the dams, don’t leave their own villages.
To read more about Gareth’s journey visit The River’s Tail. The black and white photos are taken by Gareth Bright and the colour photos are by Luke Forsyth.